Vol. 118 No. 1 (2024)
Research Papers

Determinants of conservation agriculture-based sustainable intensification technology adoption in smallholder farming systems: Empirical evidence from Nepal

Surya Prasad Adhikari
Nepal Agricultural Research Council, Kathmandu, Nepal
Krishna Prasad Timsina
Nepal Agricultural Research Council, Kathmandu, Nepal
Maria Fay Rola-Rubzen
University of Western Australia, Perth, Australia
Jagadish Timsina
Global Evergreening Alliance, Melbourne, and Institute for Study and Development Worldwide, Sydney, Australia
Peter B. Brown
Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization (CSIRO), Canberra, Australia
Yuga Nath Ghimire
Nepal Agricultural Research Council, Kathmandu, Nepal
Dinesh Babu Thapa Magar
Nepal Agricultural Research Council, Kathmandu, Nepal

Published 2024-06-28


  • CASI Technnologies,
  • double hurdle model,
  • mechanization,
  • smallholder farming systems,
  • sustainable intensification,
  • zero tillage
  • ...More

How to Cite

Adhikari, S. P., Timsina, K. P., Fay Rola-Rubzen, M., Timsina, J., Brown, P. B., Ghimire, Y. N., & Thapa Magar, D. B. (2024). Determinants of conservation agriculture-based sustainable intensification technology adoption in smallholder farming systems: Empirical evidence from Nepal. Journal of Agriculture and Environment for International Development (JAEID), 118(1), 31–50. Retrieved from https://www.jaeid.it/index.php/jaeid/article/view/14682


A series of on-station and on-farm CASI-based zero tillage (ZT) trials with wheat, maize and kidney bean farming systems have proven to be beneficial in the Eastern Gangetic Plains (EGP) of South Asia economically and environmentally, yet the adoption of this technology among the Nepalese farmers remains low. A two-stage double hurdle model was used to identify and analyze the factors influencing the initial adoption and subsequent intensity of adoption decisions of CASI-based ZT technology in the Sunsari and Dhanusha districts in Nepal. Results showed that gender, education of farmers, farming experience, number of dependent members in households, migration, annual income, credit obtained for crop production, training attended, and exposure visits and field days were significant positive variables in both adoption and intensity of adoption decisions. It is recommended that efforts be made for improving farmers’ knowledge through farmers’ groups and cooperatives, and organizing training and exposure visits and field days for farmers to increase awareness and improve access to the adoption and spread the CASI technologies. The findings have large implications for the adoption and spread of CASI-based technologies and the sustainability of cereal-based farming systems not only in Nepal but in the entire EGP of South Asia.




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