Journal of Agriculture and Environment for International Development (JAEID) <p>Formerly <em>RIVISTA DI AGRICOLTURA SUBTROPICALE E TROPICALE.</em><br>The Journal of the <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener"><em>Italian Agency for Development Cooperation</em></a> has been published since 1907 under different names. The Journal of Agriculture and Environment for International Development is an international, multidisciplinary biannual journal dealing with agricultural production, biotechnology, food security, environment, remote sensing and natural resources evaluation, economics and social science, rural development and soil science. The Journal publishes scientific, technical and extensional papers concerning italian cooperation activities devoted to Developing Countries and Countries in transition.</p> Firenze University Press en-US Journal of Agriculture and Environment for International Development (JAEID) 1590-7198 <p>Upon acceptance, the copyright of a paper becomes the property of 'Journal of Agriculture and Environment for International Development'. By virtue of their appearance in this open access journal, articles are free to use, with proper attribution, in educational and other non-commercial settings. Permission to reprint in any form contributions or parts of contributions for commercial use can be given only by the Journal.</p> Sensitivity of Potato Yield and Biomass to Climate Change Effects in Gisozi, Burundi, and Washington, USA, and Assessment of LINTUL4 Model Behavior <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong>Understanding climate change effects on crop production and evaluate the effectiveness of adaptation strategies in both developed and developing countries is of key importance. Crop simulation models can provide useful insight on the effects of increasing temperatures and rising CO<sub>2</sub> concentrations [CO<sub>2</sub>] as well as rainfall variations. In this study, the LINTUL4 model was used to study the sensitivity effect of five temperature (T) levels (-3, 0, 3, 6, and 9<sup>o</sup>C above/below minimum/maximum temperatures), three precipitation (W) changes (30% decrease, baseline and 30% increase), and CO<sub>2</sub> levels (baseline(360), 450, 540, 630 and 720ppm) on nutrient limited yield (Yn), water limited yield (Yw), water and nutrient limited yield (Ynw) and potential yield (Yp) of potato crop in high-input Washington, USA and low-input Gisozi, Burundi. The maximum weight of the tuber yield and aboveground biomass for Yp and Yw in Gisozi, and Yn and Yp in Washington was observed at combinations of lower temperature and elevated [CO<sub>2</sub>]. For Gisozi, maximum tuber yield for Yn and Ynw was observed at [CO<sub>2</sub>] of less than 720ppm. The results suggest that nutrient supply will continue to be the major limiting factor for potato production under elevated [CO<sub>2</sub>] in Gisozi, and water availability will limit Yw and Ynw rain-fed production in Washington. Generally, the LINTUL4 model performs well with few data input, but fails to predict the differential effect of high temperature on assimilate partitioning to aboveground and belowground biomass.</p> Abate Feyissa Senbeta Iwan Supit Dieudonne Harahagazwe Copyright (c) 2021-06-29 2021-06-29 115 1 5 30 10.12895/jaeid.20211.1132 How farmer characteristics and dimensions of resilience correlate with farmers’ ability to recover from shocks: a case study of Indonesian palm oil smallholders <p class="JAEIDAbstract">Most studies on the effects of certification on smallholders’ livelihood emphasize vulnerability while neglecting resilience. This paper assesses the farmer resilience of five different types of palm oil smallholders in Indonesia. We use and apply Speranza’s (2014) framework to assess and understand farmer resilience. We conclude that the correlations between buffer capacity, learning capacity, and resilience are rather weak. Our results further reveal that palm oil smallholders are relatively resilient to price declines, haze from forest fires and El Niño. The differences in resilience between the smallholder groups are small, although certified smallholders collaborating with companies and NGOs seem to be more resilient than uncertified smallholders collaborating with middlemen. The terminated Nucleus Estate Smallholder (NES) system allowed farmers to meet these favourable conditions. A few new initiatives, such as FAIR company-community partnerships may provide similar opportunities for smallholders. We also question the direct link between self-organization and resilience.</p> Nia Kurniawati Hidayat Astrid Offermans Pieter Glasbergen Copyright (c) 2021-06-29 2021-06-29 115 1 31 58 10.12895/jaeid.20211.1192 Food Production Diversity and Diet Diversification in Rural and Urban area of Iran. <p>The food security paradigm shifted from diet quantity to diet quality and consumption of a satisfactory amount of micronutrients around the world. Low dietary diversification and imbalance consumption of food groups are the main characteristics of Iranian households. Food production diversity can be a significant determinant of dietary diversity in developing countries such as Iran. Thus, this research tries to examine the impact of food production diversity alongside the socioeconomic and sociodemographic determinants on dietary diversity in rural and urban areas of the country. For this aim, a panel data set is constructed based on all the available data in rural and urban areas of 31 provinces of Iran from 2011 to 2016 and panel quantile regression applied to investigate the impact of the control variables. The main results indicate that food production diversity, household income, the share of food in household expenditure, literacy rate have a positive and significant impact on the dietary diversity in rural and urban regions of the country. Moreover, the food price index has a negative and significant effect on dietary diversity in both regions. Finally, the age of head of household and family size only has a negative impact on diet diversification in rural areas. According to these results, encouraging small farmers to change their production patterns to a more diverse pattern in a short time, and pursuing multidimensional approaches such as the promotion of agricultural value chain should be considered by policymakers to improve the dietary diversity in rural and urban areas. Furthermore, the establishment of rural retirement found and redistribution of current income subsidy can help the elderly and extended family in rural areas to enhance their diet quality. Finally, design a price monitoring approach alongside a flexible trade strategy to manage the food market prices can help households to consume the appropriate diet with enough micronutrients.</p> Mohammad Mehdi Farsi Aliabadi Mahmoud Daneshvar Kakhky Mahmoud Sabohi Sabouni Arash Dourandish Hamid Amadeh Copyright (c) 2021-06-29 2021-06-29 115 1 59 70 10.12895/jaeid.20211.1252 Decision Criteria to Tobacco Biofuel Production <p>This work presents a study to identify the potential of biofuel production from an energetic tobacco. The objective is to establish a priority scale under specific criteria for the possibilities of biofuels which have already been studied from various plants. This will provide a direction for research that aims to investigate biofuels, directing their efforts based on the priorities found. The priorities were obtained through multicriterial analysis, based on criteria chosen by the SAATY scale and defined with the DELPHI method. After being analyzed in WebPROA software to determine the order of importance using three methods: Borda, Condorcet, and Copeland, all indicated that biodiesel and bioethanol are the two priority fuels for development of studies of energy tobacco biofuels.</p> Rosana de Cassia de Souza Schneider Fernando Sansone de Carvalho Jorge André Ribas Moraes Elpídio Oscar Benitez Nara Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Agriculture and Environment for International Development (JAEID) 2021-06-29 2021-06-29 115 1 71 84 10.12895/jaeid.20211.1394 Mechanically assisted harvesting of dry and semi-dry dates of average to low quality <p>A large number of date palms in the world produce average to low quality dates that are used for processing into derivate or as animal feed and constitute an important source of sugar and energy; most of these dates are of the dry or semidry kind, so they can bear the shock of being harvested by shaking and dropping on the ground without losing their value. In order to evaluate the possibility of using hand carried electromechanical harvesters, of the type used for harvesting olives and other fruits, for collecting dates of Mech Degla and Deglet Noor varieties, preliminary field tests have been carried out at Biskra, in Algeria, with the use of two models of Italian olive harvesters, that were able to detach all fruits from a single bunch in a time ranging from 30 to 88 s, with a productivity in the range of 22.8 - 36.4 kg<sub>*</sub>min<sup>-1</sup>. These results are encouraging and allow for further investigation, even with a more complex experimental design, including adaptation of the equipment to the specific context. &nbsp;</p> Francesco Garbati Pegna Ahmed Nourani Angelo Romano Copyright (c) 2021-06-29 2021-06-29 115 1 85 96 10.12895/jaeid.20211.1436 First investigation about the agricultural system in Torbeck plain, Haiti: a statistically driven SWOT analysis <p>Haitian agricultural potential is largely unexploited, also thanks to inappropriate international and national policies. Development cooperation role in developing the agricultural sector is still fundamental in Haiti, despite the long-standing presence and amount of funds channelled by international development organizations. The country needs a new approach to its agricultural development and development cooperation needs new practices that are able to drive a shift towards more appropriate interventions.</p> <p>Our research focuses the integration of advanced statistical methodologies and SWOT analysis at pilot scale. Multidimensional data were collected in 49 farms in Torbeck plain survey data in order to inform a SWOT analysis built on elementary data mining techniques and Principal Component Analysis (PCA) in order to discover the main components affecting the system’s variability. The most meaningful variables are then used for Hierarchical Cluster Analysis (HCA) in order to provide farms’ classification and identify the most relevant features for economic sustainability of the farms.</p> <p>PCA reveals the presence of three main components. Overall, it seems that crop choice makes the difference because of the sale price’s great importance. The irrigation system’s availability does not affect neither yield nor income, whilst mechanization is mostly important for farms whose farmer’s first crop choice is maize. Moreover, mechanization is a generally worthwhile investment for farms whose fields’ area is at least about 1.2-1.5 ha.</p> <p>Overall, statistical analysis provides reasonable farms’ classification and interesting insights about agricultural Torbeck system. These were valuable for informing a SWOT table. Commenting SWOT results, we were able to suggest strategies for improving agricultural system in Torbeck. They include development of poor local market opportunities and infrastructure, planting of crops with high economic values, development of governmental supports, preparing strategic plans for development of organic farming, considering the quality of crops, considering farm sustainability indexes, using sustainable water resource management and development of extension programs based on farmers' needs. On the one hand, these findings match the existing guidelines. On the other hand, they help in identifying priorities for intervention in the study area.</p> Giuseppe Russo Junior Aristil Jean Wilbert Bernadin Alberto Spada Gemma Assante Pietro De Marinis Copyright (c) 2021-06-29 2021-06-29 115 1 97 124 10.12895/jaeid.20211.1465 Dynamics of nectar secretion, honey production potential and colony carrying capacity of Coffea arabica L., Rubiaceae <p>Coffee is an important export commodity for the Ethiopian economy and also used for honey production. This study was aimed to identify the effect of temperature and humidity on nectar volume, the nectar secretion dynamics, honey production potentiality, and the number of bee colonies required to be placed in a hectare of coffee plantation for optimum honey production. The study was conducted in Gera District western Ethiopia. One day before nectar measuring, 5 inflorescences were covered with fine mesh bags on a different part of the tree. From covered inflorescences, twenty flowers per tree were randomly selected and nectar volume was measured using micropipettes. Accordingly, nectar volume and concentration, temperature, and air humidity were measured with an interval of one hour. The average nectar volume (µl) per flower in 24 hours, sugar amount per tree (g), expected honey yield per tree (kg) and honey (kg) production potential per hectare for <em>C. arabica</em> were 3.3 <u>+</u> 0.2, 0.040 <u>+</u> 3, 0.050 <u>+</u> 4 and 125 kg (25-275 kg), respectively. The actual harvestable amount of honey is half of the potential (62.5 kg/ha). If a kilogram of <em>C. arabica </em>honey would be valued at 6.25 USD, the total financial to be expected is $ 390.63 per hectare. The mean nectar volume and concentration have significant differences (p&lt;0.05) at different hours of the day. Nectar volume was positively correlated with humidity while concentration positively correlated with temperature. One hectare of productive trees of <em>C. arabica </em>holds 4 or 3 or 2 honeybee colonies for traditional or transitional or frame hives respectively. From this study, it is concluded that Coffee is not economically valuable only for its seeds, but also for honey production. Therefore, the integration of coffee plantations with beekeeping is recommended.</p> Tura Bareke Admassu Addi Kibebew Wakjira Tolera Kumsa Copyright (c) 2021-06-29 2021-06-29 115 1 125 138 10.12895/jaeid.20211.1556