The date palms of Al Jufrah - Libya: a survey on genetic diversity of local varieties
AbstractDate palm (Phoenix dactylifera) a long-lived dioecious monocotyledon is one of the oldest plants on the earth cultivated by humans and the most important fruit crop of arid climate regions in North African and Middle East countries. This review refers to the genetic characterization of a set of the more relevant date palm cultivars in Al Jufrah Oasis. This oasis, due to its position represents one of the most interesting Libyan regions for date palm cultivation. Molecular typing of 18 date cultivars, which are common genotypes in the five oases of Al Jufrah, was performed using 16 highly polymorphic SSR loci. The high level of genetic diversity observed among the cultivars is sound with data obtained with similar analysis on accessions from other countries of North Africa and Middle East. To understand the genetic history of date palms growing in Al Jufrah oases, we investigated the polymorphism of a plastidial minisatellite that discriminate between African and Middle Eastern varieties. Al Jufrah date palm revealed a very high frequency of western chorotype similar to that reported for Tunisian varieties and greater than those observed in Algeria, Morocco and Mauritania. Most of the time the cultivar of origin of male plant is unknown because of seed propagation. The assignment of male plants already growing in the farms to a cultivar of origin could give the possibility to choice the pollinators. The use of a genetic fingerprinting can be used to trace back the origin of the male plants. Three different methodologies for the analysis of the SSR data were compared to assign male plants to cultivars of origin. SSR markers, especially when different methods of analysis of polymorphisms are compared, can offer important indications, albeit not exhaustive, to assign unknown plants to a specific cultivar.
Ahmed T. and Al-Qaradawi Y., 2009. Molecular Phylogeny Of Qatari Date Palm Genotypes Using Simple Sequence Repeats Markers Biotechnology 8 (1): 126-131,2009ISSN 1682-296X.
Akkak A. et al., 2009. Development and evaluation of microsatellite markers in Phoenix dactylifera L. and their transferability to other Phoenix species. Boil Plant 53(1):164-166.
Al-Dous E. et al., 2011. De novo genome sequencing and comparative genomics of date palm (Phoenix dactylifera). Nat Biotech 29-6:521-527.
Al-Faifi S. A. et al., 2016. Development, characterization and use of genomic SSR markers for assessment of genetic diversity in some Saudi date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) Cultivars. Electronic Journal of Biotechnology 21 (2016) 18–25.
Al-Khalifah NS. and Askari E. (2003) Molecular phylogeny of date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) Cultivars from Saudi Arabia by DNA fingerprinting. Theor Appl Genet 107:1266–1270.
Al-Ruqaishi IA, et al., 2008. Genetic relationships and genotype tracing in date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) In Oman based on microsatellite markers. Plant Genet Resour 61:70–72.
Arabnezhad H., et al., 2012. Development, characterization and use of microsatellite markers for germplasm analysis in date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.). Scientia Horticulturae 134 150–156.
Ballardini M. et al., 2013. The chloroplast DNA locus psbz-trnfm as a potential barcode marker in Phoenix L. (Arecaceae) Zookeys. (365): 71–82.
Bashir G. et al., 2010 Date palm germplasm in Al Jufra oasis. Pomological cards. in Improvement and valorisation of date palm in the Al Jufrah oasis” Edited by IAO-MAE.
Battaglia M. et al., 2015. Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht J.M. Al-Khayri et al. (eds.), Date Palm Genetic Resources and Utilization: Volume 1: Africa and the Americas, 1_7 Chapter 14 Date Palm Status and Perspective in Libya DOI 10.1007/978-94-017-9694-.
Benaceur M. et al., 1991. Genetic diversity of the date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) From Algeria revealed by enzyme markers. Plant Breed 107:56-57.
Billotte N. et al., 2004. Nuclear microsatellite markers for the date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.): characterization and utility across the genus Phoenix and in other palm genera. Mol Ecol Notes 4:256-258.
Bodia A, et al., 2012. Genetic diversity analysis of date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) Cultivars from Figuig oasis (Morocco) using SSR markers. IJSAT 2012; 2:96–104.
Chao, C. & Krueger, R. 2007. The date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.): overview of biology, uses, and cultivation. Hortscience 42, 1077–1082.
De Cillis E. 1923. Saggio di “Fenicigrafia libica” Studi sopra alcune razze di palma da datteri coltivate in Tripolitania. Estratto dal Bollettino di Informazioni economiche n 6. Ministero delle Colonie, Roma.
Delli G. 2010. “The Geographic Information System of date plantations of Waddan, Hun, Sokna, Al Fugha and Zellah Oasis” Final report “ Improvement and valorisation of date palm in Al Jufrah oasis” Edited by IAO-MAE.
Elhoumaizi M. et al., 2000. Phenotypic diversity of date-palm cultivars (Phoenix dactylifera L.) From Morocco. Genet Resour Crop Evol 49:483-490.
Elhoumaizi M. et al., 2006 Confirmation of ‘Medjool’ date as a landrace variety through genetic analysis of ‘Medjool’ accessions in Morocco. J Amer Soc Hort Sci 131:403-407.
El-Juhany L., 2010. Degradation of date palm trees and date production in Arab countries: causes and potential rehabilitation Aust. J. Basic Appl. Sci., 4 (8) (2010), pp. 3998-4010.
Elmeer K. et al., 2009. New microsatellite markers for assessment of genetic diversity in date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) 3 Biotech, 1(2): 91–97. Published online 2011 May 27. doi: 10.1007/s13205-011-0010-z.
Elshibli S, Korpelainen H., 2008. Microsatellite markers reveals high genetic diversity in date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) Germplasm from Sudan. Genet 134:251-260.
Elshibli S, Korpelainen H., 2009. Biodiversity of date palms (Phoenix dactylifera L.) In Sudan: chemical, morphological and DNA polymorphism of selected cultivars. Plant Genet Resour. Doi: 10.1017/s147926210819748.9.
Gros Balthazar M. et al., 2017. The discovery of wild date palms in Oman reveals a complex domestication history involving centers in the Middle East and Africa. Curr Biol. 27(14):2211-2218.e8. doi: 10.1016/j.cub.2017.06.045.
Hazzouri K. et al., 2015. Whole genome re-sequencing of date palms yields insights into diversification of a fruit tree crop. Nature Communications | 6:8824 | DOI: 10.1038/ncomms9824.
Henderson S. et al., 2006. Genetic isolation of Cape Verde Island Phoenix atlantica (Arecaceae) revealed by microsatellite markers. Conservation Genetics 7: 213–223. Doi: 10.1007/s10592-006-9128-7
Jeanson M. et al. 2011, DNA barcoding: a new tool for palm taxonomists? Annals of botany, Volume 108, Issue 8, Pages 1445–1451.
Kalia R. et al., 2011. Microsatellite markers: an overview of the recent progress in plants. Euphytica 177:309-334.
Kalinowski S. et al., 2007. Revising how the computer program CERVUS accommodates genotyping error increases success in paternity assignment. Mol Ecol 16: 1099-1106.
Marshall T. et al., 1998. Statistical confidence for likelihood-based paternity inference in natural populations. Mol Ecol 7: 639-655.
Moussouni S. et al., 2017. Diversity of Algerian oases date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L., Arecaceae). Heterozygote excess and cryptic structure suggest farmer management had a major impact on diversity. PLOSONE/https//doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0175232.
Peakall R, Smouse P., 2006. GENALEX 6: genetic analysis in Excel. Population genetic software for teaching and research. Mol Ecol Notes 6:288-295.
Pritchard J.K., 2000. Inference of Population Structure Using Multilocus Genotype Data Genetics 2000 vol. 155 no. 2 945-959.
Pujol B, et al., 2005. Microevolution in agricultural environment: how a traditional Amerindian farming practice favours heterozygosity in cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz, Euphorbiaceae). Ecology Letters 8: 138-147.
Racchi M.L. and Camussi A., 2014. Date palms of Al Jufrah oasis: genetic fingerprinting of local cultivars and impollinators. In: Dies Palmarum, Sanremo, 5-7/12/2013, Centro Palme Sanremo, pp. 1-9.
Racchi, M.L. et al., 2014. Genetic characterization of Libyan date palm resources by microsatellite markers 3Biotech 4: 21-32.
Smouse P.E. and Peakall R. 1999. Spatial autocorrelation analysis of individual multiallele and multilocus genetic structure Heredity; 82 ( Pt 5):561-73.
Solliman M., et al., 2017. Identiﬁcation and sequencing of Date-SRY Gene: A novel tool for sex determination of date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences. Https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sjbs.2017.08.002.
Tengberg M., 2012. Beginnings and early history of date palm garden cultivation in the Middle East. J. Arid Environ. 86, 139–147 (2012).
Vivoli G., 1933. I datteri del Fezzan. Relazioni e Monografie Agrario-coloniali N. 24. Istituto Agricolo Coloniale Italiano Firenze.
Zehdi S. et al., 2004a. Genetic diversity of Tunisian date palms (Phoenix dactylifera L.) Revealed by nuclear microsatellite polymorphism. Hereditas 141:278-287.
Zehdi S. et al., 2004b. Analysis of Tunisian date palm germplasm using simple sequence repeat primers. Afri J Biotech 3:215-219.
Zehdi S. et al., 2006. Etablissement d’une clé d’identification variétale chez le palmier dattier (Phoenix dactylifera L.) Par les marqueurs microsatellites. Plant Genet Resour Newsl 145:11-18.
Zehdi-Azouzi S. et al., 2015. Genetic structure of the date palm (Phoenix dactylifera) in the Old World reveals a strong differentiation between eastern and western populations. Annales of Botany; 116(1):10112.doi:10.1093/aob/mcv068.
Zohary D. and Hopf M., 2000. Domestication of Plants in the Old World. The Origins and Spread of Cultivated Plants in West Asia, Europe and the Nile Valley (third ed.) Oxford.
Zucco G., 1922. La palma da datteri e i suoi prodotti. Estratto dal Bollettino di Informazioni nn 5-6 Ministero delle Colonie, Roma.