Drivers of Farm-level Adoption of Crop Extension Packages in Ethiopia
Smallholder farmers’ adoption of agricultural technologies varies to a great degree with respect to spatial diversity, household related characteristics, access to infrastructure and institutional design. This cross-sectional study was conducted in order to understand the factors affecting the uptake agricultural technologies in the highlands of Ethiopia. Analysis was conducted on data collected in 2014 from a survey of 2,880 households in four major regions of the country covering 30 districts. Econometric method (two-limit Tobit model) was used to analyse determinants of farm-level adoption of crop technology packages promoted by the national agricultural extension service. Findings reveal that 71%, 66%, 60%, 52%, 46% and 29% of the sample households adopted recommended technology packages for potato, wheat, maize, tef, barley, and sorghum respectively. Results demonstrate that agro-ecology and spatial variability, distance from homestead to farm plots, slope index of the farm, access to extension services, access to credit, lagged gross annual income and membership to a cooperatives were all significant factors influencing technology adoption. The study shows there is significant variation in technology adoption between model farmers and non-model farmers. However, the productivity difference is limited to few crops. The findings suggest that investment in infrastructure, promoting access to institutional services and access to credit are instrumental to technology adoption by smallholders. The extension strategy should therefore promote inclusive strategy in which both model and non-model farmers have equal access to technology supply and extension services.
Akudugu, M., Guo, E., Dadzie, S., 2012. Adoption of Modern Agricultural Production Technologies by Farm Households in Ghana: What Factors Influence their Decisions? Journal of Biology, Agriculture and Healthcare 2
Akinola, A.A., Alene, A.D., Adeyemo, R., Sanogo, D., Olanrewaju, A. S., Nwoke, C., Nziguheba, G., 2010. Determinants of adoption and intensity of use of balance nutrient management systems technologies in the northern Guinea savanna of Nigeria. Quarterly Journal of International Agriculture 49:25-45
Al-Karablieh, E. K., Al-Rimawi A. S., Hunaiti, D A., 2009. Logit Models for Identifying the Factors that Influence the Adoption of Barley Production Technologies in Low Rainfall Areas. Jordan Journal of Agricultural Sciences 5:3
Ayele G., Bekele. M., Zekeria, S., 2006. Productivity and Efficiency of Agricultural Extension Package in Ethiopia. Addis Ababa, Ethiopia: EDRI. 2010
Barrett, C. B., , Carter, M. R., and TIMMER C. P., 2010. "A Century-Long Perspective on Agricultural Development." American Journal of Agricultural Economics 92(2): 447-468
Bayissa G., 2014. A Double-Hurdle Approach to Modelling of Improved Tef Technologies Adoption and Intensity Use in Case of Diga District of East Wollega Zone, Global Journal of Environmental Research 8:41-49
Bekele, W., Drake, L., 2003. Soil and water conservation decision behavior of subsistence farmers in the Eastern Highlands of Ethiopia: a case study of the Hunde-Lafto area. Ecological Economics 46:437-451
Beyene, A. D. and Minale Kassie, 2015. Speed of adoption of improved maize varieties in Tanzania: An application of duration analysis. Technological Forecasting and Social Change 96: 298-307.
Benin, S., Ehui, S., Pender, J., 2003. Policies for livestock development in the Ethiopian highlands. Environment. Development and Sustainability 5:491-510
Berhanu Gebremedhin, Hoekstra, D. and Azage Tegegne., 2006. Commercialization of Ethiopian agriculture: Extension service from input supplier toknowledge broker and facilitator. IPMS (Improving Productivity and Market Success) of Ethiopian Farmers Project Working Paper 1. ILRI (International Livestock Research Institute), Nairobi, Kenya. 36 pp.
Berhanu, G., Moti, G. and Hoekstra, D., 2009. Smallholders, institutional services, and commercial transformation in Ethiopia, Agricultural Economics 40 (2009) supplement 773–787.
Bonabana-Wabbi J.. 2002. Assessing Factors Affecting Adoption of Agricultural Technologies: The Case of Integrated Pest Management (IPM) in Kumi District, Msc. Thesis Eastern Uganda
CIA World Fact Book., 2015. https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/
Diiro, G., 2013. Impact of Off-farm Income on Technology Adoption Intensity and Productivity: Evidence from Rural Maize Farmers in Uganda. International Food Policy Research Institute, Working Paper 11
Does, C., Mwangi, W., Verkuil, H., de Groote, H., 2003. Adoption of maize and wheat technologies in Eastern Africa: A Synthesis of the Findings of 22 Case Studies. CIMMYT Economic working paper 03-01. Mexico, D.F.: CIMMYT
Endale, K., 2010. Fertilizer Consumption and Agricultural Productivity in Ethiopia. Addis Ababa, Ethiopia: EDRI
Evans, G.W., 2003. The built environment and mental health. Journal of Urban Health 80:536–555
Evans, G. W., Wells, N. M., Moch, A., 2003 Housing and Mental Health: A Review of the Evidence and a Methodological and Conceptual Critique. Journal of Social Issues, 59:475–500
Evenson, R.E and Gollin, D., 2003. Assessing the Impact of the Green Revolution, 1960 to 2000. Science Vol. 300, Issue 5620, pp. 758-762. DOI: 10.1126/science.1078710
Feleke, S. and Zegeye, T., 2006. Adoption of improved maize varieties inSouthern Ethiopia: Factors and strategy option. Food Policy 31 (2006) 442–457
FYF., 2012. Recognising the nnrecognised: Farmer Innovation In Northern Malawi. A find your feed report http://www.asfg.org.uk/Farmer%20Innovation%20Study%20-%20FINAL.pdf
Gebremedhin, B., Swinton, S.M., 2003. Investment in soil conservation in northern Ethiopia: the role of land tenure security and public programs. Agricultural Economics 29:69-84
Gebrerufael Girmay., 2015. Chemical Fertilizer Marketing and Uptake in Ethiopia: Evidence from Ada`a District of Oromia Regional State. Research Journal of Agriculture and Environmental Management. Vol. 4(7), pp. 307-320, July, 2015
Gebresilassie, L., Bekele, A., 2015. Factors determining allocation of land for improved wheat variety by smallholder farmers of northern Ethiopia. Journal of Development and Agricultural Economics, 7:105-112
Harper, J., Rister, M., Mjelde, J., Drees, M., Way M., 1990. Factors influencing the adoption of insect management technology. American Journal of Agricultural Economics 72:997-1005
Ibrahim, K.M., Haque, E., Hoque, M.Z., 2014. Adoption of Recommended Potato (Solanum tuberosum) Production Technologies by The Potato Growers of Some Selected Areas of Bangladesh. Bangladesh J. Agril. Res. 39:79-92
IFPRI., 2009. Review and Recommendations for Strengthening the Agricultural Extension System in Ethiopia. IFPRI, Addis Ababa
John O., Geophrey S., Mary M., 2009 Agricultural Technology Adoption: A Panel Analysis of Smallholder Farmers’ Fertilizer Use in Kenya. Contributed Paper Prepared for Presentation at the African Economic Research Consortium Conference on Agriculture for Development, May 28th and 29th, Mombasa, Kenya. 30pp
Kassie, M., Jaleta, M., Shiferaw, B., Mmbando, F., Mekuria, M., 2013. Adoption of interrelated sustainable agricultural practices in smallholder systems: Evidence from rural Tanzania. Technological Forecasting and Social Change 80:525
Kassie, M., Teklewold, H., Jaleta, M., Marenya, P., & Erenstein, O., 2015. Understanding the adoption of a portfolio of sustainable intensification practices in eastern and southern Africa. Land Use Policy, 42, 400–411.
Kefyalew, E., 2011. Fertilizer Consumption and Agricultural Productivity in Ethiopia. Development Research Institute Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
Kiptot, E., Hebinck, P., Franzel, S., Richards, P., 2007. Adopters, testers or pseudo-adopters? Dynamics of the use of improved tree fallows by farmers in western Kenya. Agricultural Systems 94:509–519
Lefort, R., 2012. Free market economy, ‘developmental state’ and party-state hegemony in Ethiopia: The case of the ‘model farmers’. The Journal of Modern African Studies, 50(4), 681-706
McDonald, John, and Robert Moffitt., 1980. "The Uses of Tobit Analysis." Review of Economics and Statistics 62 (May):318.
Mugisha, J. a. a. G. D., 2010. Explaining the Adoption of Improved Maize Varieties and its Effects on Yields among Smallholder Maize Farmers in Eastern and Central Uganda. Middle-East Journal of Scientific Research 5(1): 6-13.
Mwangi, F., Verkuijl, H. and Bisanda, S., 1999. Gender Differentials in Adoption of Improved Maize Production Technologies In Mbeya Region Of The Southern Highlands Of Tanzania. EASSRR, Vol. XV, No 2, June 1999
Odoemenem I.U., 2007. Capital resource mobilization and allocation efficiency by small-scale cereal crop farmers of Benue State, Nigeria. Ph.D Dissertation, Dept. of Agri. Economics Management & Extension, Ebonyi State Univ., Abakaliki, Nigeria
Odoemenem I.U., and Obinne, C.P.O., 2010. Assessing the Factors Influencing the Utilization of Improved Cereal Crop Production Technologies by Small scale Farmers in Nigeria. Indian Journal of Science and technology. 3 http://www.indjst.org
Ogada J. M., Mwabu, G., Muchai D., 2014. Farm technology adoption in Kenya: a simultaneous estimation of inorganic fertilizer and improved maize variety adoption decisions. Agricultural and Food Economics 2:12
Oluoch-Kosura, W.A., Marenya P.P., Nzuma M.J., 2001. Soil fertility management in maize-based production systems in Kenya: current options and future strategies. Paper submitted at the Seventh Eastern and Southern Africa regional maize conference, Nairobi: 350-355.
Shiferaw Feleke and Tesfaye Zegeye., 2006. Adoption of improved maize varieties in Southern Ethiopia: Factors and strategy options. Food Policy 31 (2006) 442–457.
Spielman, D.J., D. Kelemework, and D. Alemu., 2009. Policies to promote smallholder intensification in Ethiopia: The search for appropriate public and private roles. Paper presented at the Seventh International Conference on the Ethiopian Economy, Addis Ababa, June 25 – 27.
Solomon A., Shiferaw, B., Simtowe, F., Lipper, L., 2012. Impact of modern agricultural technologies on smallholder welfare: Evidence from Tanzania and Ethiopia. Food Policy 37:283-295
Sserunkuuma, D., 2005. The adoption and impact of improved maize and land management technologies in Uganda. e-Journal Of Agricultural And Development Economics 2:67-84
Storck H,Emana B, Adenew B, Borowiecki A, Shimelis W/Hawariat., 1991. Farming Systems and Farm Management Practices of Small holders in the HarargheHighlands.Farming Systems and resource Economics in the Tropics, Vol. 11, Wissenschaftsverlag Vauk, Kiel KG, Germany.
Tewodaj, M., Cohen, MJ., Birner, R., Mamusha, L., Randriamamonjy, J., Fanaye, T., Zelekawork, P., 2009. Agricultural Extension in Ethiopia through a Gender and Governance Lens. Ethiopia Strategy Support Program Discussion Paper No. ESSP2 007
Tilman D, Cassman KG, Matson PA, Naylor R, Polasky S (2002) Agricultural sustainability and intensive production practices. Nature 418:671–677.
Uaiene, R.N., Arndt, C., Masters, W.A., 2009. Determinants of Agricultural Technology Adoption in Mozambique. Discussion papers No. 67E January 2009 National Directorate of Studies and Policy Analysis Ministry of Planning and Development Republic of Mozambique
Uwagboe, E.O., Akinbile, L.A., Oduwole, O.O., 2012. Socio-Economic Factors and Integrated Pest Management Utilization among Cocoa Farmers in Edo State. Academic Journal of Plant Sciences 5: 07-11
Yaron, D., Dinar, A., Voet, H., 1992 Innovations on Family farms: The Nazareth Region in Israel. American Journal of Agricultural Economics 74:361-370
Yu, B., Nin-Pratt, A., Funes, J., Asrat, S., 2010. Cereal Production and Technology in Ethiopia. IFPRI – ESSP II Discussion Paper 12. Washington, D.C.: International Food Policy Research Institute.
Zeller, M., Diagne, A., Mataya, C., 1998. Market access by smallholder farmers in Malawi: Implications for technology adoption, agricultural productivity and crop income. In: Agricultural Economics 19:219-229