Assessment of faba bean gall (<i>Olpidium viciae</i> (Kusano) in major faba bean (<i>Vicia faba</i> L.) growing areas of Northeastern Amhara, Ethiopia
AbstractFaba bean (Vicia faba L.) is one of the most important crops grown in the highlands of Wollo. Yield in the country is generally very low, and diseases represent one of the major production constraints. In Ethiopia, a great variety of diseases affects faba bean production. However, gall forming faba bean new disease has become a very serious disease that seriously affected faba bean producing areas. To study the status of this disease in the highlands of Wollo, a survey was conducted in six major faba bean producing districts of Wollo during the main cropping season of 2012 and 2013. A total of 119 farmers’ fields were visited to determine the incidence and severity of faba bean gall forming new disease. The level of incidence was high in all the five districts, namely Gubalafito, Meket, Woreilu, Wadila, Jama, Legehida and Dessie Zuria. The level of disease severity ranged from 9.9 and 59.3%, while the incidence varied from 50 to 100%. The mean differences in incidence and severity within the districts variable classes, altitude, varieties, growth stage, plant population, planting date, previous crop, weed population and soil type were high. The independent variables: districts, altitude, growth stage, plant population, previous crops, weed population, drainage system and soil types were significantly associated with high incidence and severity of faba bean new disease as single predictor in the logistic regression model. A reduced multiple variable model was fitted using districts, altitude, growth stage, plant population, previous crop, weed population, soil type and drainage system as independent variables. High severity (>5%) had a high probability of association to all independent variables, except previous crop. There were about 1.44, 2.42 and 2.44 times higher probabilities that faba bean new disease severity exceeded 5% in dense plant population compared to low plant population, high weed population compared to low weed density and bad drainage system compared to moderate drainage system fields, respectively.
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